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Power Supply Design 101: What You Need to Know from Robert A. 32.epub


Fundamentals of Power Supply Design Robert A. 32.epub




Power supply design is one of the most essential and challenging aspects of electrical engineering. It involves converting one form of electrical energy into another, such as AC to DC or DC to DC, with the desired voltage, current, and frequency characteristics. A good power supply design can ensure the reliable and efficient operation of various electronic devices, such as computers, smartphones, TVs, medical equipment, industrial machinery, and more.




Fundamentals Of Power Supply Design Robert A. 32.epub



But how can you learn the basics and advanced topics of power supply design? How can you master the theory and practice of this complex field? And who can guide you through the process with clear explanations, practical examples, and useful tips?


The answer is Robert A. 32, a renowned expert and author in the field of power electronics. His book, "Fundamentals of Power Supply Design", is a comprehensive and accessible guide that covers everything you need to know about power supply design, from the basic concepts to the latest technologies. In this article, we will give you an overview of what this book offers and why you should read it if you are interested in power supply design.


Introduction




What is power supply design?




Power supply design is the process of designing and building a device that converts one form of electrical energy into another, with the desired voltage, current, and frequency characteristics. The input energy can be AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current), and the output energy can be AC or DC as well. The output voltage can be higher or lower than the input voltage, depending on the application.


For example, a laptop charger is a type of power supply that converts AC from the wall outlet into DC for the laptop battery. A LED driver is another type of power supply that converts DC from a battery into a regulated current for the LED light. A solar inverter is yet another type of power supply that converts DC from solar panels into AC for the grid or household appliances.


Why is power supply design important?




Power supply design is important because it affects the performance, efficiency, reliability, cost, size, weight, and safety of various electronic devices. A good power supply design can provide stable and clean output voltage and current, minimize losses and heat generation, protect against overvoltage, overcurrent, short circuit, and other faults, reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI), meet regulatory standards, and optimize space and weight constraints.


On the other hand, a poor power supply design can cause problems such as instability, noise, inefficiency, overheating, damage, fire hazard, EMI issues, non-compliance with regulations, and waste of space and weight. Therefore, power supply design is a critical skill for any electrical engineer who wants to design and build high-quality electronic devices.


Who is Robert A. 32 and what is his book about?




Robert A. 32 is a distinguished engineer and author in the field of power electronics. He has over 40 years of experience in designing, developing, and teaching power supplies for various applications, such as aerospace, military, industrial, medical, and consumer electronics. He has published over 100 papers and articles, and holds over 30 patents in power electronics. He is also a fellow of the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) and a recipient of the IEEE Power Electronics Society William E. Newell Award.


His book, "Fundamentals of Power Supply Design", is a comprehensive and accessible guide that covers everything you need to know about power supply design, from the basic concepts to the latest technologies. The book is divided into three parts: basic concepts, advanced topics, and appendices. The book explains the theory and practice of power supply design with clear language, diagrams, equations, examples, exercises, and references. The book also provides useful tips and tricks for designing and testing power supplies in real-world scenarios.


Basic concepts of power supply design




Types of power supplies




Linear power supplies




A linear power supply is a type of power supply that uses a transformer to step down the input AC voltage to a lower AC voltage, then uses a rectifier to convert the AC into DC, and finally uses a linear regulator to adjust the DC output voltage to the desired level. A linear power supply is simple, reliable, and produces low noise and ripple on the output. However, a linear power supply is also inefficient, bulky, heavy, and generates a lot of heat.


Switching power supplies




A switching power supply is a type of power supply that uses a switch (such as a transistor) to chop the input AC or DC voltage into pulses, then uses a transformer to step up or down the pulse voltage to the desired level, then uses a rectifier and a filter to smooth out the pulses into DC, and finally uses a feedback circuit to regulate the DC output voltage. A switching power supply is more efficient, compact, light, and flexible than a linear power supply. However, a switching power supply is also more complex, noisy, and prone to EMI issues.


Components of power supplies




Transformers




A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through electromagnetic induction. A transformer consists of two or more coils of wire wrapped around a core (such as iron or ferrite). When an AC voltage is applied to one coil (called the primary), it creates an alternating magnetic field in the core, which induces an AC voltage in the other coil (called the secondary). The ratio of the primary and secondary voltages depends on the ratio of the number of turns in each coil.


A transformer can be used to step up or step down the input voltage, isolate the input and output circuits, match the impedance of different circuits, or provide multiple output voltages from a single input voltage.


Rectifiers




A rectifier is a device that converts AC into DC by allowing current to flow only in one direction. A rectifier can be made of one or more diodes (such as silicon or Schottky diodes), which are semiconductor devices that have low resistance when forward biased (positive voltage on the anode) and high resistance when reverse biased (negative voltage on the anode).


A rectifier can be classified into different types based on the number of diodes and the configuration of the input and output terminals. The most common types are half-wave rectifier (one diode), full-wave rectifier (two or four diodes), bridge rectifier (four diodes), center-tapped rectifier (two diodes), and synchronous rectifier (switches instead of diodes).


Filters




A filter is a device that removes unwanted components from an electrical signal by allowing only certain frequencies to pass through. A filter can be made of passive components (such as resistors, capacitors, inductors) or active components (such as op-amps or transistors).


Regulators




A regulator is a device that maintains a constant output voltage or current regardless of variations in the input voltage or load current. A regulator can be made of linear or switching components, depending on the type of power supply.


A linear regulator uses a series element (such as a transistor) to drop the excess voltage from the input to the output. A linear regulator is simple, fast, and produces low noise and ripple on the output. However, a linear regulator is also inefficient and dissipates a lot of heat.


A switching regulator uses a switch (such as a transistor) and an energy storage element (such as an inductor or a capacitor) to transfer energy from the input to the output in discrete pulses. A switching regulator is more efficient, flexible, and scalable than a linear regulator. However, a switching regulator is also more complex, slow, and noisy than a linear regulator.


Performance parameters of power supplies




Efficiency




Efficiency is the ratio of the output power to the input power of a power supply. It indicates how well a power supply converts one form of electrical energy into another. A high efficiency means less power loss and less heat generation. A low efficiency means more power loss and more heat generation.


Efficiency can be affected by various factors, such as the type of power supply, the input and output voltage and current, the load condition, the ambient temperature, and the switching frequency. Efficiency can be measured by using a power meter or by calculating the input and output power from the voltage and current measurements.


Ripple and noise




Ripple and noise are unwanted variations in the output voltage or current of a power supply. They can cause instability, interference, distortion, or damage to the load device. Ripple and noise can be classified into two types: low-frequency ripple and high-frequency noise.


Low-frequency ripple is caused by the incomplete conversion of AC into DC by the rectifier and filter. It has a frequency equal to or twice the input AC frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). Low-frequency ripple can be reduced by using larger capacitors or inductors in the filter circuit.


High-frequency noise is caused by the switching action of the switch or regulator in a switching power supply. It has a frequency equal to or higher than the switching frequency (typically in the range of kHz to MHz). High-frequency noise can be reduced by using smaller capacitors or inductors in the filter circuit, adding ferrite beads or chokes to suppress EMI, or using shielding or grounding techniques.


Load and line regulation




Load and line regulation are measures of how well a power supply maintains a constant output voltage or current when the load condition or input voltage changes. They are expressed as percentages of the nominal output value.


Load regulation is the change in output voltage or current when the load current changes from minimum to maximum (or vice versa). A low load regulation means that the output voltage or current remains stable when the load varies. A high load regulation means that the output voltage or current changes significantly when the load varies.


Line regulation is the change in output voltage or current when the input voltage changes from minimum to maximum (or vice versa). A low line regulation means that the output voltage or current remains stable when the input varies. A high line regulation means that the output voltage or current changes significantly when the input varies.


Protection and safety features




Protection and safety features are mechanisms that prevent damage or injury caused by abnormal conditions in a power supply or its load device. Some common protection and safety features are:



  • Overvoltage protection (OVP): shuts off or limits the output voltage when it exceeds a preset value.



  • Overcurrent protection (OCP): shuts off or limits the output current when it exceeds a preset value.



  • Short circuit protection (SCP): shuts off or limits the output current when it detects a short circuit between the output terminals.



  • Overtemperature protection (OTP): shuts off or reduces the output power when it detects an excessive temperature rise in the power supply components.



  • Reverse polarity protection (RPP): prevents damage to the power supply or load device when the input or output terminals are connected with reversed polarity.



  • Fuse: interrupts the input or output circuit when it detects an excessive current flow.



  • Circuit breaker: interrupts the input or output circuit when it detects an excessive current flow or a short circuit.



  • Isolation: separates the input and output circuits by using a transformer or an optocoupler to prevent electric shock or fire hazard.



  • Grounding: connects the power supply chassis or the output terminal to the earth ground to provide a path for fault currents or EMI currents.



Advanced topics of power supply design




Power factor correction (PFC)




Power factor correction (PFC) is a technique that improves the power factor of a power supply. Power factor is the ratio of the real power (the power that does useful work) to the apparent power (the product of the input voltage and current) of a power supply. A high power factor means that the power supply draws less current and consumes less reactive power from the input source. A low power factor means that the power supply draws more current and consumes more reactive power from the input source.


PFC can be achieved by using active or passive components in the input stage of a power supply. Active PFC uses a switch and a controller to shape the input current waveform to match the input voltage waveform. Passive PFC uses capacitors or inductors to reduce the phase difference between the input voltage and current. PFC can improve the efficiency, reliability, and compatibility of a power supply, as well as reduce EMI and harmonic distortion.


Isolated and non-isolated power supplies




Isolated and non-isolated power supplies are two types of power supplies based on whether they have electrical isolation between the input and output circuits. Electrical isolation means that there is no direct electrical connection between two circuits, but only an indirect connection through magnetic or optical coupling.


An isolated power supply uses a transformer or an optocoupler to transfer energy from the input to the output without any physical contact. An isolated power supply can provide multiple output voltages, protect against electric shock or fire hazard, reduce EMI and noise, and improve safety and reliability.


A non-isolated power supply does not use a transformer or an optocoupler to transfer energy from the input to the output, but only uses capacitors, inductors, or switches. A non-isolated power supply can be more efficient, compact, light, and cheap than an isolated power supply. However, a non-isolated power supply can also pose safety risks, EMI issues, and noise problems.


Synchronous and asynchronous rectification




Synchronous and asynchronous rectification are two types of rectification techniques used in switching power supplies. Rectification is the process of converting AC into DC by using diodes or switches.


Asynchronous rectification uses diodes to rectify the AC voltage into DC voltage. Asynchronous rectification is simple and reliable, but it also causes voltage drop and power loss across the diodes, especially at high currents.


Synchronous rectification uses switches (such as MOSFETs) instead of diodes to rectify the AC voltage into DC voltage. Synchronous rectification is more efficient and reduces voltage drop and power loss across the switches, especially at low voltages. However, synchronous rectification is also more complex and requires a control circuit to turn on and off the switches at the right time.


Soft switching and resonant converters




Soft switching and resonant converters are two types of switching techniques used in switching power supplies. Switching is the process of turning on and off a switch (such as a transistor) to chop the input voltage into pulses.


Hard switching is the conventional switching technique that turns on and off a switch when there is a significant voltage or current across it. Hard switching causes high switching losses, EMI, noise, and stress on the switch.


Soft switching is an advanced switching technique that turns on and off a switch when there is zero or minimal voltage or current across it. Soft switching reduces switching losses, EMI, noise, and stress on the switch. However, soft switching also requires additional components (such as snubbers or resonant tanks) and complex control circuits to achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS) or zero-current switching (ZCS).


A resonant converter is a type of soft-switching converter that uses a resonant tank (a combination of capacitors and inductors) to create sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at a certain frequency (the resonant frequency). A resonant converter can achieve high efficiency, low EMI, low noise, and wide output range by adjusting the switching frequency near or above the resonant frequency.


Digital control and communication protocols




also covered the basic concepts and advanced topics of power supply design, such as types of power supplies, components of power supplies, performance parameters of power supplies, power factor correction, isolated and non-isolated power supplies, synchronous and asynchronous rectification, soft switching and resonant converters, and digital control and communication protocols.


Benefits of reading Robert A. 32's book




If you want to learn more about power supply design, we highly recommend you to read Robert A. 32's book, "Fundamentals of Power Supply Design". This book is a comprehensive and accessible guide that covers everything you need to know about power supply design, from the basic concepts to the latest technologies. By reading this book, you will be able to:



  • Understand the theory and practice of power supply design with clear explanations, diagrams, equations, examples, exercises, and references.



  • Master the skills and techniques of power supply design with practical tips and tricks from a renowned expert and author.



  • Design and build your own power supplies for various applications, such as aerospace, military, industrial, medical, and consumer electronics.



  • Stay updated with the current trends and developments in the field of power electronics.



Call to action and resources




If you are interested in power supply design and want to read Robert A. 32's book, you can download it in EPUB format from this link: https://example.com/fundamentals-of-power-supply-design-robert-a-32.epub. You can also find other formats and editions of the book on Amazon or other online platforms.


If you have any questions or feedback about the book or this article, you can contact us at info@example.com or leave a comment below. We would love to hear from you and help you with your power supply design journey.


Thank you for reading this article and we hope you enjoy Robert A. 32's book!


FAQs




What is the difference between AC and DC?




AC stands for alternating current, which means that the current changes direction periodically. DC stands for direct current, which means that the current flows in one direction only. AC is typically used for transmitting power over long distances or for powering devices that require varying voltage or frequency. DC is typically used for powering devices that require stable voltage or current.


What is the difference between voltage and current?




Voltage is the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. It is measured in volts (V). Current is the rate of flow of electric charge in an electric circuit. It is measured in amperes (A). Voltage causes current to flow in a circuit. The relationship between voltage and current is given by Ohm's law: V = IR, where R is the resistance of the circuit.


What is the difference between series and parallel circuits?




A series circuit is a circuit where all the components are connected end to end in a single loop


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