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Michael Nguyen
Michael Nguyen

Taihu Stone Buy



Taihu stone (Chinese: 太湖石) or porous stone is a kind of limestone produced at the foot of Dongting Mountain (洞庭山) in Suzhou, which is close to Lake Tai. Due to long-term surging by water, this kind of stone features pores and holes.[1]




taihu stone buy



Taihu stones are naturally occurring limestone rocks native to Lake Tai in Jiangsu Province, China. They are revered as scholars' rocks and meditation stones and are frequently used in Asian gardens to represent the mountains in a balanced landscape along with architecture, water, plants, trees, and flowers. Formed underwater, taihu stones develop intriguing textures owing to the uneven erosion of softer minerals deposited within the limestone. We enjoy them vertically and horizontally planted amidst garden foliage, adding a unique sculptural presence to any outdoor space.


Found mostly in the vast drainage areas of Tai Lake, these limestone rocks are hard but brittle, with slight variations among those taken from lake beds and those extracted on land or from different districts in the surrounding environs. Those formed underwater are more precious, because of their fresh, soft color and their multiple, linked perforations produced from years of wave and water erosion. With their pale gray or ivory tint, Taihu rocks are usually large and are regarded as the best garden rocks. Artificial hills made of Taihu rocks give the appearance of strange peaks looming up or chains of hills connected by streams and bridges, with successive peaks along narrow, twisted paths. Small Taihu rocks of good quality are rare and meant for indoor appreciation. The beauty of Taihu rocks comes from their thinness and wrinkles as well as their as their perforations and hollows which enhance their open appearance.


Found mostly in the vast drainage areas of Tai Lake, these limestone rocks are hard , with slight variations among those taken from Lake beds. They are fresh looking with soft color and their multiple, linked perforations produced from years of wave and water erosion make them aesthetically pleasing. Often referred to as -infinity stones- with their pale gray to ivory, or red tint, Taihu rocks are usually large and are regarded as the best garden rocks. Artificial hills made of Taihu rocks give the appearance of strange peaks looming up or chains of hills connected by streams and bridges, with successive peaks along narrow, twisted paths. Small Taihu rocks of good quality are rare and meant for indoor appreciation. The beauty of Taihu rocks comes from their natural perforations, wrinkles, and hollows which enhance their open appearance. They are cut and shaped from large Formations and are superb decor inside or out of doors.


Taihu stone is the most famous one among the top four stones in China. It is formed by the water's erosion in Taihu Lake for hundreds or even thousands of years. It has become a common ornamental stone in classical Chinese gardens because of its porous and intricate forms. At the same time, it has become a cultural symbol through thousands of years of history in China; later, people researched its spatial aesthetics; there are also some studies on its structural properties. For example, it has been found that the opening of Taihu stone caves has a steady-state effect which people develop its value in the theory of Poros City, Porosity in Architecture and some cultural symbols based on the original ornamental value of Taihu stone. This paper introduces a hybrid generative design method that integrates the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) techniques. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation enables architects and engineers to predict and optimise the performance of buildings and environment in the early stage of the design and topology optimisation techniques BESO has been widely used in structural design to evolve a structure from the full design domain towards an optimum by gradually removing inefficient material and adding materials simultaneously. This research aims to design the artificial Taihu stone based on the environmental data-driven performance feedback using the topological optimisation method. As traditional and historical ornament craftwork in China, the new artificial Taihu stone stimulates thinking about the new value and unique significance of the cultural symbol of Taihu stone in modern society. It proposes possibilities and reflections on exploring the related fields of Porosity in Architecture and Poros City from the perspective of structure.


Taihu stone (Fig. 1) [3] is limestone and the water's erosion in Taihu Lake for hundreds or even thousands of years makes it porous and intricate. It has become a common ornamental stone in classical Chinese gardens and a symbol of Chinese culture for hundreds of years [1]. This research posits an innovative design methodology, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and bi-directional evolutionary structural optimisation (BESO), to design new artificial Taihu stones. The focus of this paper is the experiment to design a new Taihu stone with different parameters. This research contributes to Porosity Crafts and The Theory of Porous City [2], Porosity in Architecture from a structural standpoint and cultural symbols of Taihu stone in society.


Studies [9,10,11] indicate the average depth of Taihu Lake, which is a dead lake with no current, is 1.8 m, and the flow direction and velocity are mainly related to the speed of the prevailing wind over Taihu Lake. These studies have shown that, at the bottom of Taihu Lake, where Taihu stone is, the direction of wind-induced current is over 90% likely to be opposite to the wind above Taihu Lake, and the velocity of lower flow is relatively slower than the wind above.


Among the widely accepted views on the formation of the Chinese Taihu stone [1], water acidity is important for the erosion of limestone such as Taihu stone. The part that is corroded by acid is mainly dense calcium carbonate and easy to wash away by water currents. Moreover, this part is a variable that is difficult to determine its proportion and location in BESO. This paper calculates the part directly corroded by the acid in the water and eliminated by the water flow as a random ratio parameter.


It should be noted that each part of the stone's density will also affect the experi-ment's influence in reality [1]. Thus, a new constant is set to reveal the phenome-non called 'percentage of low-density part'. As a result, a fixed constant percentage of mesh will undoubtedly be eliminated in every turn of iteration, closer to the ac-tual result.


In nature, both stone and water changes should happen simultaneously, so the interval time between each step of iteration should be extremely short, which is unrealistic in software operation currently. Thus, we will try different volume reduction to reveal the result of a certain interval before the next iteration in which fluid condition refresh. The experiment catalogue will be analysed in the next chapter.


The whole simulation can be regarded as a certain ideal condition of the formation of Taihu stone. The core factor should be noted that the principle of BESO is not entirely in compliance with the reality of volume reduction of Taihu stone because the change of stone in the river contains both structure optimisation and some erosion/corrosion process. However, in a sense, the experiment here proposed should be more conducive to structural stability.


In this article, relative design is made by new material like stainless steel and inlaid drawn steel wire or glass fibre, new technology like sound, light, electricity to extract the beauty of shape from Taihu stone. Using parametric design methods through CFD&BESO, the Taihu stone structure gets improved and can provide more possibilities (seen in Fig. 10). The definition as a symbol of aesthetics was then researched in the following parts to discuss how traditional crafts can have a new way of living with contemporary society.


Porosity in Taihu stone, featured in porous shape and façade, can be used in modern architecture design [18]; the sample of porosity architecture. In Suzhou traditional gardens, Taihu stone has an architectural contribution in light changes and circulation connection; different interpretation methods can be absorbed and improved in architecture design.


In today's city organisation, as the addition of single building units, Poros City [2] tries to get a holistic result with uniform density. We try to conclude a series of space prototype and typical ways of combination in Taihu stone. As Fig. 11 shows, the comparison was made between diagrams of Poros City and diagrams of Poros structure extracted by Taihu stone, and methodology differs in organisation methods.


Taihu stone are normally hard to scan due to their natural holes. The top of the model is missing as there is a hole and at the time of the capture it was dark inside. I have no clue why a part of the back is missing but it might be due to lose of focus.


Adorning the finial of one of our favorite sky-blue tea jars is the likeness of a Taihu stone. Crafted by a special artisan in Jingdezhen who sculpts this unique finial onto many of his pieces, it commands attention wherever it is placed.


In China the appreciation of Taihu rocks has a long history. In the Chinese garden, Taihu rocks play the role of sculpture in Western gardens. Taihu rocks are essential elements of Chinese painting and literature. The Taihu rock takes its name from Lake Tai, about one hundred and twenty miles from Nanjing by water transport, a place famed for its rocks for about a thousand years. The typical Taihu rocks are hard and glossy, with strange configurations of hollow 'eyes' and twisting peaks. They have a net of raised patterns all over, their surfaces covered with small cavities, worn by the action of wind and waves. The rocks may be produced in the waters of the lake. Du Wan, a rock connoisseur of the twelfth century wrote in 'Yunlin shipu' ('Stone catalogue of the cloudy forest') about how people collected the Taihu rock in his time: "Those who harvest these stones dive for them, mallet and chisel in hand. A very toilsome business. When a fine specimen has been cut free, it is bound with huge ropes and then winched up into a large boat." But the same type of rocks may also be found underground. 041b061a72


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